1And Jacob called unto his sons, and said: gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the latter days. 2Assemble yourselves, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; And hearken unto Israel your father (ASV 1901).
Jacob Blessing His 12 sons by Harry Anderson
Jacob assembled his sons together as he lay on his deathbed
to confer upon each of them their prophetic futures. He, being driven by God’s
Spirit, would speak to each of them, and this was not going to be any ordinary
conversation. The order in which he presents their individual prophecies is
different than the order of the list of the twelve sons that was given in
Genesis 30-31. The term “Latter Days” makes reference to an end time period for
each of the twelve tribes. The term “Latter Days” is found thirteen times in
the Old Testament (Genesis 49:1; Numbers 24:14; Deuteronomy 4:30, 31:29; Isaiah
2:2; Jeremiah 23:20, 30:24, 48:47, 49:39; Ezekiel 38:16; Hosea 3:5; Micah
4:1;Daniel 10:14). The prophesied outcome of each tribe will have its final
fulfillment in the Messianic Kingdom, which will follow the Great Tribulation.
This prophecy that Jacob gave here is similar to the one Moses gave in
Deuteronomy 33. It is used here in reference to the full measure, or completion
of their near and far distant prophetic future. Rabbinic tradition tells us
that Jacob wanted to tell them when the
Messiah would come. They write that just as suddenly as Jacob started to
prophecy, the Shekinah Glory left him so he did not have the deity expressing
Himself through him and he altered the prophecies. Scripture does not support
the rabbinic teachings. What they show us is that the Jews did expect their
Messiah and knew His prophetic appearance was given in these prophecies that
Jacob gave to his sons.
Nevertheless God’s Spirit did come upon Jacob to allow him to
accurately prophecy regarding future developments of the nation Israel through
the twelve tribes. The blessing uses word pictures to describe the general
outline of the son’s prophetic character and the historical development of the
tribes in the future. The unmistakable genuineness of each of their individual
characters prophetically becomes the nature of that tribe and then of the
Therefore the Holy Spirit of God revealed to the dying Jacob
the future development of the tribes and assigned each of them position and
importance in the nation into which they were to expand up to and including the
last days, and not merely at some future time.
Genesis 49: 3-4
3Reuben, thou art my
first-born, my might, and the beginning of my strength; The pre-eminence of
dignity, and the pre-eminence of power. 4Boiling over as water, thou
shalt not have the pre-eminence; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed;
Then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch (ASV 1901).
Reuben was indeed Jacob’s first born
from Leah. He was preeminent of the twelve sons. As such he had inheritance
rights, and he should have received a double portion of any inheritance
including a high place in the conveyance of the Abrahamic Covenant. He should
have had the Messiah come through his line. But he lost it. In Jacob’s poetic
word pictures he calls him unstable as “Boiling
over as water.” Considering the characteristics of water boiling over and
matching it to Reuben’s personality we see him as very passionate but lacking
self-control. He was a man of unstable emotions. So instead of a blessing he
actually receives a curse. What he should have received was divided between two
other sons; Joseph became the first born in his stead and the double portion
came unto Ephraim and Manasseh his sons. The preeminence went to Judah.
Jacob then gave the reason for
Reuben’s loss. He said, “Because thou
wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch.”
Reuben had sexual intercourse with his father’s concubine Bilhah (Genesis
35:22). Not only was it adultery but it was incest too. Reuben and the tribe
that would come from him would not have anything of importance to contribute in
the future of Israel. This tribe never provided a leader of any kind for the
nation (judge, prophet, king etc.). After the Exodus wandering was through they
were the first to ask for a place to settle in the Promised Land. They did not
want to cross the Jordan with the others (Numbers 32). They assisted in the
building of an unauthorized place of worship (Joshua 22:10-34). In the wars
with the Canaanites during Deborah’s time they failed to assist with the
military efforts (Judges 5:15-16). Ruben’s performance has always been dismal.
His numbers in the various censuses continually decreased. As told in
Deuteronomy 33:6, Moses had to intervene with God on his behalf so the tribe
did not disappear altogether.
Simeon & Levi's Blessing
Reuben & Simeon by Joseph Konstanin Flavitsky Cir 1855
Genesis 49: 5-7
5Simeon and Levi are brethren; Weapons of violence are their swords. 6O my soul, come not thou into their council; Unto their assembly, my glory, be not thou united; For in their anger they slew a man, And in their self-will they hocked an ox. 7Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; And their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, And scatter them in Israel (ASV 1901).
The two sons of Leah, Simeon and
Levi were inseparable as close companions and full brothers. However, Jacob
spares no time expressing their character, which he calls “Weapons of violence are their swords.” Whereas Reuben had lust and
weakness, these two had outright anger and cruelty. It was their hot tempers
that caused them to kill all the men in the village of Shechem after the rape
incident with Dinah their sister. There was no legitimate justification for
that act. It was pure vengeance. Jacob disassociated himself from their
actions. He said that “in their anger they
slew a man, And in their self-will they hocked an ox.” They killed men and
destroyed property. The hocking of an ox in this Bible version means to
hamstring it or cut the hamstring. These are a powerful group of muscles at the
back of the thigh, which are larger tendons at the back of the hock in the hind
leg of an animal. The hamstring bends the knee and helps to straighten the hip.
When these are cut then the animal is crippled and can’t work or even eat. In
short they must be killed. As a result of these destructive behaviors Israel
said, “I will divide them in Jacob, And
scatter them in Israel.” In terms of
their inheritance of the Land neither got their own separate property. Simeon
was living within the tribal land of Judah and Levi was scattered in
forty-eight different Levitical cities (Numbers 18:20-24, 35:1-8; Deuteronomy
10:9; Joshua 14:4, 21:1-42). The Simeonites were always bad. The Levites
largely redeemed themselves by their stand against idolatry in Moses day (Exodus
32:26). Moses was a Levi and they became the priestly line. The prophecy said
they would be scattered and not have any land of their own. This happened.
The Royal Promise by Dale A Brueggemann
Genesis 49: 8-12
8Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise: Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee. 9Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up: He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up? 10The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, Until Shiloh come: And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be. 11Binding his foal unto the vine, And his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; He hath washed his garments in wine, And his vesture in the blood of grapes: 12His eyes shall be red with wine, And his teeth white with milk (ASV 1901).
longer is Jacob giving bleak prophesies, and starts out this prophecy with the
praise Judah will receive from his brethren. Judah is going to receive praise
and interestingly that is what his name means in Hebrew, “praise”. This was
pure blessing. The blessing was of inalienable supremacy and power. Jacob said,
“Judah thou, thee will thy brethren
praise! thy hand in the neck of thy foes! to thee will thy father’s sons bow
down!” Judah had already demonstrated his superior character by not going
along with his brothers to kill Joseph and then pleading with Joseph to save
Benjamin. He offered himself in place of Benjamin for surety. Judah success was
affirmed in other Scriptures (II Samuel 22:4; Psalm 18:40). He also gained
preeminence over the other tribes. In Numbers 2:9 in the wilderness wanderings
Judah “set forth first”. In Numbers
10:14 he headed the march though the wilderness. In I Chronicles 5:2 Judah
prevailed above his brethren. In Judges 1:1-2 Judah is chosen by God to go up
first against the Canaanites. Judah’s tribe was loyal to the house of David at
the time of the revolt of the ten tribes (I Kings 12:20). He was commissioned
by God to lead the conquest of the promised land (Judges 1:1-3; 4-21. The tribe
of Judah made David King (II Samuel 2:1-11, 5:4-5). Judah received a massive
amount of power in four phrases:
whelp emphasizes power, vigor and nobility
the prey he has gone up emphasizes his success in killing his prey
down as a crouched lion means he is ready to pounce
a lioness who will rouse him? This means he is pictured as a strong lion.
is therefore pictured as the Lion of the Tribe of Judah. In Numbers 24:9 Balaam
uses the same illustration for Israel.
second part of the prophecy is:
"The scepter shall not depart from
Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh comes; and to him
shall be the obedience of the people (KJV).”
"scepter" is understood to
mean the "tribal staff" or "tribal identity." This
"tribal identity" was linked, in the minds of the Jews, to their
right to apply and enforce Mosaic Law upon the people, including the right to
administer capital punishment. The name "Shiloh" is an idiom for the Messiah. Therefore, according to
this prophecy, the tribal right of Judah to apply and enforce the Mosaic Law,
including administering capital punishment would cease when the Messiah came.
Jews were under Roman dominion since about 43 B.C. Archelaus was the second son
of Herod the Great. Herod had murdered his oldest son, and he also did this to a
number of other family members. At the death of Herod the Great in 4 B.C.
Caesar Augustus placed Archelaus over Judea as “Ethnarch”, or ruler of a
province. Archelaus' mother was a Samaritan giving him only one quarter, or
less of Jewish blood. However, he was never accepted by the Jews and was
removed from office in 6 or 7 AD. According to Josephus Herod Archelaus was
dethroned and banished to Vienna, a city of Gaul. He was replaced, not by a
Jewish king, but by a Roman procurator named Coponious who immediately
restricted the legal power of the Sanhedrin and they lost their ability to
adjudicate capital cases. This was the normal policy toward all the nations
conquered by the Romans. The province of Judea had, however been spared from
this policy up to this point because the Herods were Roman appointees. However,
Caesar Augustus had had enough of the Jews and finally removed the judicial
authority from them at the ascension of Coponious. Josephus recorded this
transfer of power:
And now Archelaus’s part of Judea was reduced into a
province, and Coponious, one of the equestrian order among the Romans, was sent
as a procurator, having the power of [life and] death put into his hands by
the minds of the Jewish leadership the removal of the power of the Sanhedrin to
adjudicate capital cases signified the removal of the scepter, or national
identity of the tribe of Judah. The Jewish Targum Onkelos ( a Jewish
commentary) states another way of saying Genesis 49:10 as:
"The transmission of dominion shall not
cease from the house of Judah, nor the scribe from his children's children,
forever, until Messiah comes." 
the ability for the Jews to adjudicate their own capital cases was extinguished
when Messiah came because He fulfilled the Mosaic Law, and it was not longer
operable. But the Jews did not understand that capital punishment was gone from
them because the Messiah was in their midst. They knew this had to be the case,
and should have been looking around for the Messiah. But instead they failed to
recognize that Jesus was the Messiah, had indeed come, and that was what was
actually happening. One rabbi recorded the Jew’s anguish over this at the time
"When the members of the Sanhedrin
found themselves deprived of their right over life and death, a general
consternation took possession of them: they covered their heads with ashes, and
their bodies with sackcloth, exclaiming: 'Woe unto us for the scepter has
departed from Judah and the Messiah has not come'” 
The prophecy goes on to say, “Binding his foal unto the vine, And his ass’s colt unto the choice
vine;” which is an illustration of these vines being so strong that if the
foal moves his head he will normally pull out the vines holding him. This is another
illustration of the Messiah being so strong that even a strong colt could not
break the vine and choice vine in an indication of abundance. The Messianic
aspect of this is that when Messiah is presented He will be riding on an ass.
Next the prophecy says, “He
hath washed his garments in wine, And his vesture in the blood of grapes.”
This is directly from Isaiah 63:1-6 and Revelation 14:17-20. It closes with, “His eyes shall be red with wine, And his teeth
white with milk.” This indicates abundance. It does not indicate
intoxication abundance, just simple abundance. Jesus is All in All.
Genesis 49: 13
13Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; And he shall be for a haven of ships; And his border shall be upon Sidon (ASV 1901).
gives Zebulun the territory that will have access to shipping. The territory he
received in the allotment in Joshua 19:10-16 did not border on the sea. In fact
he was landlocked between Asher, Naphtali, Issachar and Manasseh. He was close
to the Phoenician city of Sidon, which was a major shipping port. Ezekiel
chapter forty-eight describes the territory that the twelve sons will receive
in the Millennial Kingdom. Zebulun is specified in verse twenty-eight, but it
does not describe the borders of his allotment there. The prophecy has yet to
be fulfilled because it was not fulfilled in the Old Testament. Other factors
in the history of this tribe include:
1.His men risked their lives for Israel’s
independence (Judges 5:18).
2.Elon the Judge came from this tribe (Judges
3.They strongly supported David (I Chronicles
4.His territory was in the Galilean region and was
a major area of Jesus’ ministry and He was raised in Nazareth, which is within
Zebulon’s territory. (Isaiah 9:1; Matthew 4:15-16).
14Issachar is a strong ass, Couching down between the sheepfolds: 15And he saw a resting-place that it was good, And the land that it was pleasant; And he bowed his shoulder to bear, And became a servant under task work (ASV 1901).
is a sort of cryptic prophecy. It does state two characteristics. First
Issachar is said to be a “strong ass”
and second he is “crouching down between
the sheepfolds”. The “strong ass”
is a reference to his connection to agriculture and not to political rank. In
Numbers 26:25 his tribe numbered 64,300. Later in I Chronicles they counted out
at 87,000. Issachar is also characterized as “crouching”, which represents a lazy side to this tribe. They were
not very ambitious. The prophecy “And he
saw a resting-place that it was good,” characterizes him as not being too
active and having an easy life. Some have characterized him as having ease at
the cost of liberty. The prophesy also indicated that Issachar would become a
robust, powerful race of men, and receive a pleasant inheritance which would
lead to comfort and repose. He did live in the Jezreel Valley, which is
agriculturally rich. It will also be a site during the final battle in the Great
He preferred to be a laborer instead
of a leader since he was quite strong physically. He was willing to trade his
liberty for material possessions. He did submit to the corrupt Canaanites.
Moses drew a connection between Issachar’s wealth and the Mediterranean
(Deuteronomy 33:18-19). In Judges 5:15 with much prodding from Barak they
joined in the war. In Judges 10:1-2 they did produce one Judge, Tola. Finally
we see in I Chronicles 12:32 they are identified as David’s supporters.
Genesis 49: 16-18
16Dan shall judge his people, As one of the tribes of Israel. 17Dan shall be a serpent in the way, An adder in the path, That biteth the horse’s heels, So that his rider falleth backward. 18I have waited for thy salvation, O Jehovah (ASV 1901).
immediately characterizes Dan as “judging
his people.” We see this getting fulfilled in Samson who came from this
tribe (Judges 13-16). He was frequently listed last and does not make the list
of the worldwide evangelist team during the Great Tribulation. Two sections of
Scripture refer to him as being last (Numbers 10:25; Joshua 19:40-48). Even
though they are not selected to participated in the greatest evangelistic
outreach the world will have ever known, he is not forgotten. This tribe is
included in the Messianic Kingdom (Ezekiel 48:1-2,32).The prophecy goes on to describe his fighting
strategies of a “serpent in the way, An
adder in the path, That biteth the horse’s heels, So that his rider falleth
backward.” His war strategies have been realized in Sampson (Judges 18:1-31).Finally the prophecy ends with Dan’s “salvation”. This is the first use of the
word “salvation” in the Bible. It is
used seventy-eight times in the Old Testament. In Hebrew it isישׁוּעָ“yeshua”, or “Jesus” in English.
19Gad, a troop shall press upon him; But he shall press upon their heel (ASV 1901).
The main point of this one verse is
that raiders will raid God and he will retaliate. The Hebrew word for “troop” is a marauding band. So this is
what will press on him. The blessing, which is formed out of the name “Gad” contains no special prophecies to
identifiable historical events so we can track them. Moses identified his
fighting ability in Deuteronomy 33:20.1 Chronicles 5:18 proves that the Gadites
displayed the bravery promised them by Jacob. In 1 Chronicles 12:8–15, the
Gadites who come to David are compared to lions, and their swiftness to that of
roes, or gazelle. Members of his tribe supported David.
20Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, And he shall yield royal dainties (ASV 1901).
prophecy means he will have a very fruitful soil. He also will desire to have
rich food. As his inheritance Asher received the lowlands of Carmel on the
Mediterranean as far as the territory of Tyre, one of the most fertile parts of
Canaan. This area abounded in wheat and oil, from which Solomon supplied and
household of King Hiram (1 Kings 5:11).
Other verses in the Old Testament indicate that he will “dip his foot in oil” (Deuteronomy
33:24). Specifically this was Moses’ prophecy of the outcome of the future for
Asher. Some interpret this to be olive oil in keeping with the food prophecy
from Jacob. Still others sense that it refers to petroleum oil. In which case
there has been much exploration for oil in Asher’s territory by several oil
exploration companies such as Zion. Today some Christian geologists and oilmen
are using these verses as a sort of treasure map to look for petroleum. Israel,
like the rest of the industrialized world, is dependent on a steady flow of oil
from reliable sources. After capturing the Sinai Peninsula in 1967,
Israeli petroleum explorers discovered and developed the Alma Oil Fields on the
western side of the Sinai Peninsula. For a while these wells provided
Israel with a reliable source of oil. Israel "lost" the oil
fields in the negotiations for peace with Egypt in 1979. Today, Israel
does not have a steady, reliable supply of oil. Offshore of Israel's northern
port city of Haifa, rigs are working to tap the first major fossil-fuel reserve
ever found in Israel's territory, a store on which it hopes to build a far more
independent energy future.
The Tamar natural gas field was discovered in 2009 some 50
miles (80 kilometers) off Haifa's coast in the Mediterranean Sea. In each oil
well there is natural gas. It is the propellant, which drives the oil to the
surface. These finds have been natural gas alone. Tamar is large enough to meet
all of Israel's natural gas requirements for 20 to 30 years, the experts say.
Interestingly the find has been just off the cost of the land allotment to
Asher. We know that the coming allied invasion led by the Russians and
including the Muslim nations will be driven to seek a spoil (Ezekiel 38: 12).
If Israel develops a significant amount of natural resources this just might be
the attraction for Gog to attack.
21Naphtali is a hind let loose: He giveth goodly words (ASV 1901).
Jacob just made two very simple statements. Naphtali is
described as a “hind” (deer) with
free movement and he gives godly speech. Both of these prophecies indicate a
refinement and a gift of speech. We see this in Judges 5:1-31 within the song
of Deborah and Barak.
Jacob Prophecies over Joseph
Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph by Adriaen van der Werff Cir 1728
22 Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall: 23 The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him: 24 But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob; (from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:) 25 Even by the God of thy father, who shall help thee; and by the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb: 26 The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren (KJV).
to Joseph is of extraordinary length, equaled only by that to Judah. He
gets treated more favorably than any of the others. Joseph is compared to the
branch of a fruit-tree planted by a well (Psalm. 1:3), which sends it shoots
over the wall, and by which, according to Psalm 80, we are probably to
understand a vine. Jacob took up the promise of fruitfulness from the name of
Joseph’s son Ephraim (which means “fruitful”) and lavished the promise of
victory, and prosperity on Joseph’s two tribes. From the simile of the
fruit-tree Jacob passed to a warlike figure that is described as the mighty and
victorious unfolding of the tribe of Joseph in conflict with all its foes. It
goes on to describing with prophetic
intuition the future as if it had already come. It also described the
persecution that he experienced as a young adult. The three phrases are:
archers that sorely grieved him,
shot at him,
3.And persecuted him.
All three refer to the mistreatment he suffered as a
result of his brother’s envy and Potiphar’s correction for his wife’s claims.
These prophecies merely pointed to the conflicts
awaiting his descendants, in which they would constantly overcome all hostile
attacks.Victory in battle was experienced by Joshua, Deborah, and
Samuel, all of the tribe of Ephraim, and by Gideon and Jephthah, both of
In these verses are several wonderful titles for God:
who Insures blessings from the heavens above
Who Insures blessings from the deep or below
Who Insures blessings from the breast and womb
Jacob bestowed on Joseph the greater blessings because he
was the prince among his brothers (Genesis 41:41). He gets the double portion
as the designated first born replacing Reuben in that position.
Jacob Refusing to Release Benjamin by Adolphe Roger Cir. 1829
27 Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil (KJV).
of Benjamin drawn here is a tribal, not an individual image in which the
Benjaminites are described as warlike and predator. The martial
qualities of this small tribe are indeed well attested. The first judge-savior of
Israel from the Moabites was Ehud the Benjaminite, mentioned in Judges 3:15,
and the army of the tribe took part in the war of Deborah (Judg. 5:14). In a
civil war, it is said to have mustered twenty-six thousand men armed with
swords and seven hundred crack slingers and to have fought back savagely
against the combined forces of the other tribes (Judges 20:15, 16, 21, 25). This
tribe provided skilled archers, men “valiant in battle,” (1 Chronicles 8:40 and
12:2), and two of David’s heroes came from this tribe (2 Samuel 23:27, 29).
The historic explanation for the militancy of the
Benjaminites is based in the geographical location of its territory. They
occupied a narrow strip of land separating the hill country of Judah to the
south from the hill country of Ephraim to the north. It was so strategically
located that the important north-south central highway, as well as a main east-west
road leading to Transjordan (modern day Jordan) passed through it. As a result,
the territory of Benjamin became an arena for wars. Israelite opposition to
Philistine oppression was centered in that tribe (1 Samuel 10:5; 13:3). Saul,
first king of Israel and a strong warrior came from Benjamin (1 Samuel 9:1).
Besides Saul and Ehud the tribe produced several other notable biblical
characters who were Jonathan (I Samuel 14:1-52).
Modecai and Ester (Book of Esther), and the Apostle Paul
(Romans 11:1-2.) Other references to this tribe are seen in Judges 5:14, and
19-21; I Chronicles 8:1-40 and 12:1-7; and II Chronicles 14:8 and 17:17.
Closing-The Death of Israel
Jacob on His Deathbed Artist Unknown
28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spake unto them, and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them.
Jacob finished his blessings and the Scripture concludes this summary by showing that the prophecies go much farther than the immediate lives of the twelve sons and Joseph’s two Manasseh and Ephraim.
Now Comes The Death of Israel
Genesis 49: 29-33
And he charged them, and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my people:
bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,
30 In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before
Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the
Hittite for a possession of a burying place. 31 There they buried
Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and
there I buried Leah. 32 The purchase of the field and of the cave
that is therein was from the children of Heth. 33 And when Jacob had
made an end of commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and
yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people (KJV).
the blessing, Jacob again expressed to his twelve sons his desire to be buried
in the sepulcher of his fathers where Isaac and Rebekah and his own wife Leah
lay by the side of Abraham and Sarah (Genesis 24). Joseph had already promised
on oath to perform to do as Jacob asked (Genesis 47:29–31). This is not where
Rachel was buried. This is also the only mention of Leah’s death and burial.
She finally got to be close to him. She could not do this in life but in death
He then drew his feet into
the bed to lie down, for he had been sitting upright while blessing his sons,
and “yielded up the ghost, and was
gathered to his people”. He departed from this earthly life without a
struggle. His age is not given here, because that has already been done at
Genesis 47:28. So Jacobdied after
147 years on this earth. He had many sins, but Jacob had an unrestrained desire
for God’s blessing. He had a deep faith that always relied on God in spite of
all else. In the end he died as a man of genuine faith. He learned in his life
where the real blessings came from, and was privileged to hand them on to his
sons. He knew that his progeny would populate the world and be as “the sand of the sea” (Genesis 32:12).
They have become a major nation on the earth.
 Josephus, F., & Whiston, W. (1987). The works of Josephus: complete and unabridged. Peabody: Hendrickson.
Levy, Samson H. The Messiah: An Aramaic Interpretation; The Messianic Exegesis of the Targum, (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Jewish Institute of Religion, 1974), pg. 2.
Lemann, Augustin, Jesus Before the Sanhedrin, 1886, Translated by Julius Magath, NL#0239683, Library of Congress # 15-24973.